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Protein Microarray: an Unconventional Military Review - Creative Biomart

Similar to DNA microarrays, protein microarray (also known as protein chip) is another strategy for the large-scale study of proteins. It is a high-throughput method used to track the interactions and activities of proteins and to...
    NEW YORK, NY, December 02, 2012 /24-7PressRelease/ -- Similar to DNA microarrays, protein microarray (also known as protein chip) is another strategy for the large-scale study of proteins. It is a high-throughput method used to track the interactions and activities of proteins and to determine their functions in a parallel way. It may consist of a support surface such as a glass slide, nitrocellulose membrane, bead, or microtitre plate, to which an array of capture proteins is bound. Various types of probe molecules may be added to the array and assayed for ability to bind or react with the protein. Typically the probe molecules are labeled with a fluorescent dye, so that when the probe binds to the protein it results in a fluorescent signal that can be read by a laser scanner.

This technology can complement other techniques, such as mass spectrometry and yeast two-hybrid assays. Protein microarrays are rapid, automated, economical, and highly sensitive, consuming small quantities of samples and reagents. It was relatively easy to develop since it is based on the previously-developed DNA microarray technology.

Now protein arrays are mainly being applied in the following five aspects:
a. In Diagnostics -detecting antigens and antibodies in blood samples; the profiling of sera to discover new disease biomarkers; the monitoring of disease states and responses to therapy in personalized medicine; the monitoring of environment and food
b. Proteomics -Protein expression profiling i.e. which proteins are expressed in the lysate of a particular cell
c. Protein functional analysis -identifying protein-protein interactions (e.g. identification of members of a protein complex), protein-phospholipid interactions, small molecule targets, enzymatic substrates (particularly the substrates of kinases) and receptor ligands
d. Antibody characterization -Characterizing cross-reactivity, specificity and mapping epitopes.
e. Treatment development -The development of antigen-specific therapies for autoimmunity, cancer and allergies; the identification of small molecule targets that could potentially be used as new drugs

And three types currently are mainly used to study the biochemical activities of proteins:
1. Analytical microarrays (or capture arrays), in which a library of antibodies, aptamers or affibodies is arrayed on the support surface, is especially useful in comparing protein expression in different solutions. These are used as capture molecules since each binds specifically to a particular protein.
2. Functional protein microarrays (or target protein arrays), which are constructed by immobilising large numbers of purified proteins and are used to identify protein-protein, protein-DNA, protein-RNA, protein-phospholipid, and protein-small molecule interactions etc, are used to study the biochemical activities of the entire proteome in a single experiment.. They are composed of arrays containing full-length functional proteins or protein domains.
3. Reverse phase protein microarray (RPA), which involves complex samples, allows for the determination of the presence of altered proteins or other agents that may be the result of disease. Specifically, post-translational modifications, which are typically altered as a result of disease can be detected using RPAs. These antibodies are typically detected with chemiluminescent, fluorescent or colorimetric assays.

However, despite through devotion and innovation, proteins chips have yet to flood the market since they are actually quite difficult to handle. For example, manufactures need to find proper ways to the protein attachment; extend the protein life on the chip; how to distinguish and isolate different factors etc. A protein chip requires a lot more steps in its creation than does a DNA chip.
Challenges include:

Even though, Creative Biomart have pioneered the development of high quality antibody and protein array technology to efficiently analyze the concurrent expression and function of hundreds of proteins involved in inflammation, angiogenesis, apoptosis, cell growth, and signal transduction from a single biological sample in addition to its hybridoma, PEGylation service, custom cDNA clone and other services.

For more information about protein microarray at www.creativebiomart.net

Creative Biomart provides quality recombinant proteins, diagnostic antibodies and antigens , diagnostic enzymes and pharmaceutical enzymes to the research community of biology, clinical research, molecular diagnostics and biopharmaceutical drug development.For further information, please contact us at 1-516-669-8109


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